Topic 1 Terminology and legal frameworks of the national labour market

The labour market is the union of supply and demand for employment in a country or region, i.e. the meeting point between available employment and job seekers; its balance determines the level of employment and unemployment in that region.

  • The labour market is also known as the set of relationships between employers (the job seeker is the one who offers employment) and people seeking paid work. The labour market has particularities that differentiate it from other types of markets (financial, real estate, commodities, etc.), mainly in the coverage of labour rights and the need to guarantee them.
  • The offerer is the one who is looking for work and “offers” himself for it. The demander is the one who is looking for workers.

Labour force: this consists of people of working age who want to work. It, therefore, includes those who find work and those who do not.

Employed population: This is made up of those people who have a job (they want to work and are working), regardless of whether they are self-employed or work for others (employees).

Unemployed population: These are active people who are looking for work but cannot find it. This nuance is important, an unemployed person SEEKS, BUT DOES NOT FIND.

What does the law state about women and work?

The Spanish Constitution 1978:

Organic Law 3/2007, for the effective equality of women and men
  • Labour and Social Security Code
  • Convention of the International Labour Organisation Labour Code
  • General Social Security Law
  • Workers’ Statute
  • Law on the Prevention of Occupational Risks
  • Coming soon: New law on self-employed workers
  • In 2021 more than 9 million women were employed.
  • Employed women in Spain work mainly in the services sector (more than 8 million women).
  • The main activities in which they are engaged are commerce, health, education and catering srvices, with a relatively low presence in industry and a minimal presence in construction.