What is the difference between inclusion and integration?
Is the set of actions carried out to incorporate excluded people or minorities into the social structure as a whole. The way in which these people participate in achieving social welfare is through the creation of their own unique circuits. For example, special education groups in the educational system -that is, classes only for children with disabilities-, or the performance of tasks exclusively or in areas designated for people with disabilities in companies that hire disabled and non-disabled people.
The process of improving the terms of participation in society, particularly for people who are disadvantaged, through enhancing opportunities, access to resources, voice and respect for rights.
Although inclusion and integration aim to solve problems related to the social exclusion of vulnerable groups, promoting equal rights and opportunities, the way in which they do so is different. Inclusion advocates more for the idea of community and focuses on the capabilities of the person to provide support so that they can develop their work on equal terms with people without disabilities, while integration focuses on the diagnosis of the difficulties to differentiate this group. Therefore, inclusion does not seek to change the difference of the person or give everyone the same, but focuses on the environment to break down its barriers and provide support for equal rights and opportunities, without denying or disguising the limitations.
Until the end of the 1980s, many Spanish people, especially from areas with higher unemployment rates, emigrated to France and Germany. However, at the beginning of the 1990s, Spain started to become a host country instead of a country of emigration. There was a migratory process of North Africans, Latin Americans and, to a lesser extent, the so-called Eastern European countries.
War, ethnic conflicts, lack of freedom and justice motivated and continue to motivate human beings to leave their country, language and culture, not without pain and grief. The most important thing is that all these people are united by the same goal: to have a better life in terms of socio-economic or ideological rights, or simply to survive.
One of the best practices in the field of immigration and interculturality is the inclusion of the person who becomes an active part of the host society. One of these best practices is to design a personalized itinerary to carry out an effective inclusion of the migrant person.
The design is carried out together with the interested party, since she is the active subject and not the object.
“M” is a non-EU woman between 25 and 30 years of age, with a residence and work permit. “M” has been in Spain for about two years, but in Quart de Poblet for only a few months. She has a degree in English philology, trained in Arabic and French and her level of Spanish is basic.
Same as all extra-community people, the biggest external handicap is the delay in getting the degree homologation.
“M” is still looking for stable employment and waiting for the homologation of his university degree and Master’s degree in English. It should be noted that M has successfully taken advantage of his time living in Spain, in Quart de Poblet, to train in Spanish, obtain a B2 level, opt for and obtain a certificate in Advanced Computing and Programming, by a private entity.
The objective of a personalized itinerary is the improvement of the person’s situation and his or her full inclusion in society, as an agent of enrichment for the host society. “M” brings new knowledge and languages to his new country of residence. She has added new competences and skills, with his commitment, will and desire to be a subject and to be an active part of this new society where he lives.